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古代的科举考试与酒有些什么联系?

时间:2020-02-21 14:47:46人气:233作者: 管理员

中华民族五千年历史辉煌灿烂,伴随着历史的发展我国的酒文化也是十分之盛行。在古代中国,酒,被叫做春酒,一是因为古代的酒多半是冬酿春熟,故此叫做春酒;而另一个便是与古代的高考“春闱”有关,源自于鹿鸣宴喝酒,古时候的大学校长更是被称作“祭酒”或“国子监”,由此可见古时候“高考”和酒的密不可分。

*先在备考期间,酒便是考生们的心头宠。虽然古代的考试制度规定考试的时间,一般也是三天,但是因考试级别的不同,导致考试周期长。例如明、清两朝,乡试时间在阴历八月份,会试在阴历二月份,殿试在阴历三月份。这样,从会试到殿试当中要有一个月时间空闲。而乡、会两试的时间定在当月的初九、十二、十五三天,其中间也有两天空闲时间。 所以在这漫漫的等候期间,有些考生便趁此时机,约三五好友,聚会喝酒,也借此结交一些志趣相投的朋友,为以后的仕途之路打下基础。

在接下来的考试期间,酒也起了很大的作用。无论是科举制初创的唐代,还是制度完备的清明时期,用于考试的场所都比较简陋,明朝艾南英所著《应试文自叙》中描写到“数百人夹坐 ,蒸熏腥杂 ,汗流浃背”。尤其是明清时 ,考生在这样的地方待三天三夜 ,吃喝便溺皆不许离开,对考生的身心都是一种考验,以至当时有俗语云:“ 三场辛苦磨成鬼 ,两字功名误煞人 !”。所以为了应付恶劣的考场环境 ,古人“携枣子浸烧酒入闱”,可以起到安神御寒的作用,当然也有的考生期望饮酒之后能像诗仙李白那样文如泉涌“斗酒诗百篇”,一举夺魁。

而等到“高考”放榜后,酒更是必不可少。中榜的学子,正是“春风得意马蹄疾,一日看尽长安花”,当然要设酒宴庆祝一番了。不过在礼仪之邦的古代中国,登科及第学子的宴请并不是随便吃的,十分有讲究。就以经济*发达的唐代为例,文科考生便有“鹿鸣宴”、“闻喜宴”、“关宴”等各种规格和形式的酒宴。而这其中唐朝***的闻喜宴,*初指的便是及第学子凑*喝酒,宋人高承在《事物纪原》解释此词条时称为“醵*于曲江”。不过虽然是学子自己凑份子聚会,有时候朝廷也会有所表示,如在晚唐时期,**会赏赐宫廷美食,“赐进士红绫饼各一枚。”

当然,不仅是中榜的考生要喝酒,很多落榜的考生也离不开酒,落寞寂寥的抱一壶苦酒,酒入愁肠,聊以纾解心中苦闷。例如北宋**词人柳永,多次参加科举,却屡试不中,便曾在《鹤冲天·**榜上》中写道“且恁偎红倚翠,风流事,平生畅。青春都一饷。忍把浮名,换了浅斟低唱!”


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